Tag Archives: PHASE IV COMPRESSION GEAR

Compression garments: do they influence athletic performance and recovery?

As coaches we are continually searching for training aids that can accelerate recovery from training and competition. One training aid that has recently been adopted by a variety of athletes is the compression garment. Manufacturers of these garments have reported that compression garments improve recovery, increase power and enhance athletic performance in a variety of sports. Unfortunately, however, there have been relatively few research studies that have examined the efficacy of these garments as tools for improving athletic performance. This article focuses on the research that has described the development of compression garments and their influence on athletes during exercise and recovery.

Medical compression stockings have been used in the treatment of poor venous blood flow for more than 50 years. These medical compression stockings are usually worn over the leg and foot and are adapted to create a controlled, gradient compressive force on the leg. Typically, the compressive force is greatest at the ankle and diminishes over the length of the stocking to a minimum at the top. Medical applications are practitioner-recommended and usually start with compression ranges from 20 mm Hg to 40 mm Hg. The compressive effects of these garments are used to improve recovery in hospitals by promoting venous blood flow, decreasing venous stasis and preventing thrombosis in post-operative patients (O’Donnell, Rosenthal et al. 1979; Lawrence and Kakkar 1980; Gandhi, Palmar et al. 1984). In recent years, compression garments have become increasingly popular amongst athletes with suggested benefits including improvements in muscular power, strength, endurance, and proprioception and injury management.

Recent research with athletes has shown that compression garments may provide ergogenic benefits for athletes during exercise by enhancing lactate removal, reducing muscle oscillation and positively influencing psychological factors. The early research on compression garments demonstrated a reduction in blood lactate concentration during maximal exercise on a bicycle ergometer (Berry and McMurray 1987). Later investigations have shown improved repeated jump power (Kraemer, Bush et al. 1996; Kraemer, Newton et al. 1997; Kraemer, Bush et al. 1998) and increased vertical jump height (Doan, Kwon et al. 2003). The suggested reasons for the improved jumping ability with compression garments include an improved warm-up via increased skin temperature, reduced muscle oscillation upon ground contact and increased torque generated about the hip joint (Doan, Kwon et al. 2003). Combined, these results show that compression garments may provide both a performance enhancement and an injury reduction role during exercises provoking high blood lactate concentrations or explosive-based movements.

Research has also shown that compression garments may promote blood lactate removal and therefore enhance recovery during periods following strenuous exercise (Berry and McMurray 1987; Chatard, Atlaoui et al. 2004). For example, Berry and McMurray (1987) observed a significant reduction in blood lactate levels in highly fit males wearing compression stockings following a bicycle ergometer test at 110 per cent VO 2max. These results were recently confirmed by Chatard et al. (2004) who reported a significant reduction in blood lactate concentration and an increased plasma volume in 12 elderly trained cyclists wearing compression garments following five minutes of maximal cycling. Furthermore, wearing compression garments during an 80-minute rest period following the five minutes of maximal cycling, significantly increased (2.1 per cent) performance during a subsequent maximal cycling test. It was suggested that increased removal of the metabolic by-products during intense exercise when wearing compression garments may help improve performance (Chatard, Atlaoui et al. 2004). These results suggest that wearing compression garments during recovery periods following high intensity exercise may enhance the recovery process both during and following intense exercise and therefore improve exercise performance.

Other investigations have suggested that the use of compression garments during recovery periods may reduce the symptoms associated with delayed onset muscle soreness (Kraemer, Bush et al. 2001; Chatard, Atlaoui et al. 2004). For example, Kraemer et al. (2001) reported that subjects wearing compression garments for three days following severe eccentric exercise showed a decrease in perception of soreness, reduction in swelling and an improved recovery of force production. Similarly, Chatard et al. (2004) measured a reduction in perceptions of leg pain in subjects wearing compressive elastic stockings during recovery periods following exhaustive exercise. Furthermore, 10 of the 12 subjects in this study reported that they thought the compressive stockings had positive effects on performance during subsequent exercise.

Based on the previous research, it appears compression garments may reduce perceptions of muscle soreness during recovery periods following strenuous exercise.

Although some studies have shown compression garments to provide ergogenic benefits for athletes during recovery, others have been unable to support these findings. For example, Berry et al. (1990) examined the effects of elastic compressive tights on eight healthy males following high-intensity exercise (110 per cent VO 2max) for up to three minutes on a treadmill. Results from this study showed that there were no significant differences in energy expenditure, heart rate and blood lactate concentration between athletes wearing elastic tights and a control group at rest and at five, 15 and 30 minutes post-exercise. However, since it has been shown that compression garments require a minimum pressure of 18 mm Hg at the ankle and 8 mm Hg at the mid thigh to mimic the hemodynamic effect of exercise and to increase venous return (Lawrence and Kakkar 1980), it is possible that the pressure of the elastic tights used in this study may not have been sufficient.

Although there has been limited investigations linking the influence of compression garments on athletic performance, it appears the use of compression garments may have a positive effect on athletes during exercise and during recovery periods following exercise. As no studies have reported negative effects on exercise performance or perceptions of pain, the use of compression garments may provide a useful training tool for athletes across a wide variety of sports.

Suggested benefits of compression garments

Based on current research findings, listed below are potential areas where a competitive advantage may be gained through the use of compression garments:

• enhancing blood circulation to peripheral limbs

• reducing blood lactate concentration during maximal exercise bouts

• enhancing warm-up via increases in skin temperature

• increasing vertical jump height

• improving repetitive jump power

• reducing muscle oscillation upon ground contact

• increasing torque generated about joints, improving performance and reducing the risk of injury, for example, assisting the eccentric action of the hamstring at the end of the swing phase in running

• enhancing recovery following strenuous exercise by aiding in the removal of blood lactate and improving subsequent exercise performance

• reducing the effects of delayed onset muscle soreness in the days following strenuous exercise

• increasing feelings of positive leg sensations both during and following strenuous exercise.

In conclusion, according to the literature, compression garments may offer several ergogenic benefits for athletes across a multitude of sporting backgrounds. In particular, some studies have reported that compression garments can improve muscular power, strength, enhance recovery following intense exercise and improve proprioception. However, caution should be taken when choosing the correct compression garment for your sport and ensuring the garment provides enough pressure to promote venous return.

To learn more about compression gear, recovery, and how you can harness your unique personal physiology to achieve injury-free peak performance, call 310-582-8212 or e-mail to schedule your FREE Health & Performance Consultation. Also, be sure to check out our compression gear on sale at PHASE IV!

STUDIES:

Compression Clothing: Does it Increase Performance?

Chatard, J.C., D. Atlaoui, J. Farjanel, F. Louisy, D. Rastel, C.Y. Guezennec. 2004. Elastic stockings, performance and leg pain recovery in 63-year-old sportsmen. Eur J Appl Physiol 93(3):347-52.

Summary: Twelve, trained older (average age 63) cyclists did 2 x 5-minute maximum efforts on a bicycle ergometer separated by an 80-minute recovery period on four occasions. During the recovery between the efforts they wore either compression stockings or no compression stockings. On the second max effort in each case their power decreased compared with the first effort in each pair. The decrease in max power was less when the compression stockings were worn during the preceding recovery and lactate was significantly decreased with the compression stockings also.

Duffield, R., J. Cannon, M. King. 2010. The effects of compression garments on recovery of muscle performance following high-intensity sprint and plyometric exercise. J Sci Med Sport 13(1):136-40.

Summary: Eleven subjects completed two exercise sessions separated by seven days. The sessions consisted of 20-meter sprints and 10 bounds every minute. For one session they wore compression stockings. For the other they did not wear compression stockings. Performance was measured for the sprints and bounds. Before each session, immediately after, 2 hours after and 24 hours after the researchers measured muscle twitch properties, knee extension strength, knee flexion strength, blood lactate, body fluid pH, creatine kinase, aspartate transaminase, C-reactive protein, heart rate, ratings of perceived exertion and muscle soreness. There were no differences in performance or other measures except for muscle soreness which was less after using the compression stockings.

Higgins, T., G.A. Naughton, D. Burgess. 2009. Effects of wearing compression garments on physiological and performance measures in a simulated game-specific circuit for netball. J Sci Med Sport 12(1):223-6.

Summary: Competitive netball players wore either 1) traditional netball clothing, 2) compression garments or 3) placebo garments. They were tested for sprints, countermovement jumps, blood lactate, heart rate, velocity and distance covered during a game (using GPS technology). With compression garments there was greater distances covered and faster velocities although the enhancements were minimal.

W. S. Von Stengel, C. Kockritz, J. Mayhew, A. Wassermann, J. Zapf. 2009. Effect of compression stockings on running performance in men runners. J Strength Con Res 23(1):101-5.

Summary: Twenty-one moderately trained men ran a graded exercise test on a treadmill to a voluntary maximum output on two occasions separated by a week. One test was done with compression socks and the other with standard athletic socks. Running performance with the compression socks improved at anaerobic threshold 1.5% and at aerobic threshold 2.1%.

Scanlon, A.T., B.J. Dascombe, P.R. Reaburn, M. Osborne. 2008. The effects of wearing lower-body compression garments during endurance cycling. Int J Sports Physiol Perform 3(4):424-38.

Summary: Twelve well-trained (VO2 max 70.5 +/-4.9 mL/kg/min), young (20.5 +/- 3.6 years old), male cyclists did 2 graded exercise tests and 2 one-hour time trials wearing either full-length SportSkins Classic compression garment (LBCG) or standard underwear briefs (CON). In the graded exercise tests there was a 5% increase in anaerobic threshold power (245.9 +/- 55.7 to 259.8 +/- 44.6 watts) when wearing LBCG. There was no performance enhancement in the time trial (as measured by total work achieved in kilojoules).

Compression Clothing: Does it Increase Recovery?

Ali, A., M.P. Caine, B.G. Snow. 2007. Graduated compression stockings: Physiological and perceptual responses during and after exercise. J Sports Sci 25(4):413-419.

Summary: In this study Ali discovered that after 10km running trials, recreationally active men experienced a reduction in delayed-onset muscle soreness 24 hours after wearing compression stockings (18-22 mmHg) compared with traditional sports socks.

Berry, M.J., R.G. McMurray. 1987. Effects of graduated compression stockings on blood lactate following an exhaustive bout of exercise. J Phys Med 66(3):121-32.

Summary: Twelve highly fit males were subjects in 2 experiments. In the first experiment 6 of them did VO2 max tests on a treadmill with and without compression stockings. In the second 6 of them did 3 x 3-minute max efforts on a bicycle ergometer at 110% of their VO2 max. On the first of these 3-minute efforts they wore compression stockings during the test and during recovery. For the second 3-minute bout they wore compression stockings during the test but not during the recovery. On the third they did not use compression stockings for either the 3-minute effort or the recovery. For the first experiment (VO2 max tests) there was no difference in VO2 max with or without compression stockings. But blood lactate levels after the test were lower with compression stockings. For the second experiment (3-minute max efforts) post-exercise lactate was lower only when compression stockings were worn during recovery.

Davies, V., K.G. Thompson, S.M. Cooper. 2009. The effects of compression garments on recovery. J Strength Cod Res 23(6):1786-94.

Summary: Following exercises designed to cause soreness 11 trained subjects wore compression tights on one occasion and none on another. Self-reported muscle soreness was reduced by wearing the tights.

French D.N., K.G. Thompson, S.W. Garland, C.A. Barnes, M.D. Portas, P.E. Hood, G. Wilkes. 2008. The effects of contrast bathing and compression therapy on muscular performance. Med Sci Sports Exerc 40(7):1297-306.

Summary: Twenty-six young men did heavy-load squats to induce muscle soreness. 48 hours afterwards they were evaluated for strength performance. During the 48 hours they either 1) did hot-cold contrast baths, 2) wore compression stockings or 3) rested passively. Neither the contrast baths or compression stockings promoted recovery any more effectively than passive rest. However, the contrast baths had a brief but transient benefit for reduced soreness.

N., K. Hirata, N. Mitsukawa, T. Yanai, Y. Kawkami. 2011. Effect of pressure intensity of graduated elastic compression stocking on muscle fatigue following calf-raise exercise. J Electromyogr Kinsiol 21(2):249-54.

Summary: Fourteen subjects did 15 sets of 10 reps each of calf raises on different occasions. They wore either standard stockings (CON), compression stockings of 21-25 mmHg at the calf and 30 at the ankle (EC30), or compression stockings of 12-14 mmHg at the calf and 18 at the ankle (EC18). The EC30 stockings produced the lowest levels of fatigue.

Riman, D., L. Messonier, J. Castells, X. Devillard, P. Calmels. 2010. Effects of compression stockings during exercise and recovery on blood lactate kinetics. Eur J Appl Physiol 110(2):425-33.

Summary: Eight healthy, trained males did 2 maximum-effort tests on bikes with and without compression stockings. Post-exercise lactate removal was significantly faster with compression stockings.

Jakeman, J.R., C. Byrne, R.G. Eston. 2010. Lower limb compression garment improves recovery from exercise-induced muscle damage in young, active females. Eur J Appl Physiol 109(6):1137-44.

Summary: Seventeen females did 100 plyometric drop jumps from a high box to induce muscle soreness and damage. Eight of them wore compression stockings for 12 hours post-exercise. Nine did not wear compression stockings after the session. Recovery was measured using self-reported muscle soreness, creatine kinase levels, knee extensor strength and vertical jump height. Compression stockings improved all markers of recovery except for creatine kinase (a marker of muscle cell damage).

W.J., S.D. Flanagan, B.A. Comstock, et al. 2010. Effects of a whole body compression garment on markers of recovery after a heavy resistance workout in men and women. J Strength Cond Res 24(3):804-14.

Wearing a full-body compression garment for 24 hours after a challenging, heavy-resistance strength workout enhanced psychological, physiological and performance markers of recovery when compared with non-compressive garments. Duffield, R., J. Cannon, M. King. 2010. The effects of compression garments on recovery of muscle performance following high-intensity sprint and plyometric exercise. J Sci Med Sport 13(1):136-40.

Compression Clothing: Does it Increase Performance?

Chatard, J.C., D. Atlaoui, J. Farjanel, F. Louisy, D. Rastel, C.Y. Guezennec. 2004. Elastic stockings, performance and leg pain recovery in 63-year-old sportsmen. Eur J Appl Physiol 93(3):347-52.

Summary: Twelve, trained older (average age 63) cyclists did 2 x 5-minute maximum efforts on a bicycle ergometer separated by an 80-minute recovery period on four occasions. During the recovery between the efforts they wore either compression stockings or no compression stockings. On the second max effort in each case their power decreased compared with the first effort in each pair. The decrease in max power was less when the compression stockings were worn during the preceding recovery and lactate was significantly decreased with the compression stockings also.

Duffield, R., J. Cannon, M. King. 2010. The effects of compression garments on recovery of muscle performance following high-intensity sprint and plyometric exercise. J Sci Med Sport 13(1):136-40.

Summary: Eleven subjects completed two exercise sessions separated by seven days. The sessions consisted of 20-meter sprints and 10 bounds every minute. For one session they wore compression stockings. For the other they did not wear compression stockings. Performance was measured for the sprints and bounds. Before each session, immediately after, 2 hours after and 24 hours after the researchers measured muscle twitch properties, knee extension strength, knee flexion strength, blood lactate, body fluid pH, creatine kinase, aspartate transaminase, C-reactive protein, heart rate, ratings of perceived exertion and muscle soreness. There were no differences in performance or other measures except for muscle soreness which was less after using the compression stockings.

Higgins, T., G.A. Naughton, D. Burgess. 2009. Effects of wearing compression garments on physiological and performance measures in a simulated game-specific circuit for netball. J Sci Med Sport 12(1):223-6.

Summary: Competitive netball players wore either 1) traditional netball clothing, 2) compression garments or 3) placebo garments. They were tested for sprints, countermovement jumps, blood lactate, heart rate, velocity and distance covered during a game (using GPS technology). With compression garments there was greater distances covered and faster velocities although the enhancements were minimal.

W. S. Von Stengel, C. Kockritz, J. Mayhew, A. Wassermann, J. Zapf. 2009. Effect of compression stockings on running performance in men runners. J Strength Con Res 23(1):101-5.

Summary: Twenty-one moderately trained men ran a graded exercise test on a treadmill to a voluntary maximum output on two occasions separated by a week. One test was done with compression socks and the other with standard athletic socks. Running performance with the compression socks improved at anaerobic threshold 1.5% and at aerobic threshold 2.1%.

Scanlon, A.T., B.J. Dascombe, P.R. Reaburn, M. Osborne. 2008. The effects of wearing lower-body compression garments during endurance cycling. Int J Sports Physiol Perform 3(4):424-38.

Summary: Twelve well-trained (VO2 max 70.5 +/-4.9 mL/kg/min), young (20.5 +/- 3.6 years old), male cyclists did 2 graded exercise tests and 2 one-hour time trials wearing either full-length SportSkins Classic compression garment (LBCG) or standard underwear briefs (CON). In the graded exercise tests there was a 5% increase in anaerobic threshold power (245.9 +/- 55.7 to 259.8 +/- 44.6 watts) when wearing LBCG. There was no performance enhancement in the time trial (as measured by total work achieved in kilojoules).

Compression Clothing: Does it Increase Recovery?

Ali, A., M.P. Caine, B.G. Snow. 2007. Graduated compression stockings: Physiological and perceptual responses during and after exercise. J Sports Sci 25(4):413-419.

Summary: In this study Ali discovered that after 10km running trials, recreationally active men experienced a reduction in delayed-onset muscle soreness 24 hours after wearing compression stockings (18-22 mmHg) compared with traditional sports socks.

Berry, M.J., R.G. McMurray. 1987. Effects of graduated compression stockings on blood lactate following an exhaustive bout of exercise. J Phys Med 66(3):121-32.

Summary: Twelve highly fit males were subjects in 2 experiments. In the first experiment 6 of them did VO2 max tests on a treadmill with and without compression stockings. In the second 6 of them did 3 x 3-minute max efforts on a bicycle ergometer at 110% of their VO2 max. On the first of these 3-minute efforts they wore compression stockings during the test and during recovery. For the second 3-minute bout they wore compression stockings during the test but not during the recovery. On the third they did not use compression stockings for either the 3-minute effort or the recovery. For the first experiment (VO2 max tests) there was no difference in VO2 max with or without compression stockings. But blood lactate levels after the test were lower with compression stockings. For the second experiment (3-minute max efforts) post-exercise lactate was lower only when compression stockings were worn during recovery.

Davies, V., K.G. Thompson, S.M. Cooper. 2009. The effects of compression garments on recovery. J Strength Cod Res 23(6):1786-94.

Summary: Following exercises designed to cause soreness 11 trained subjects wore compression tights on one occasion and none on another. Self-reported muscle soreness was reduced by wearing the tights.

French D.N., K.G. Thompson, S.W. Garland, C.A. Barnes, M.D. Portas, P.E. Hood, G. Wilkes. 2008. The effects of contrast bathing and compression therapy on muscular performance. Med Sci Sports Exerc 40(7):1297-306.

Summary: Twenty-six young men did heavy-load squats to induce muscle soreness. 48 hours afterwards they were evaluated for strength performance. During the 48 hours they either 1) did hot-cold contrast baths, 2) wore compression stockings or 3) rested passively. Neither the contrast baths or compression stockings promoted recovery any more effectively than passive rest. However, the contrast baths had a brief but transient benefit for reduced soreness.

N., K. Hirata, N. Mitsukawa, T. Yanai, Y. Kawkami. 2011. Effect of pressure intensity of graduated elastic compression stocking on muscle fatigue following calf-raise exercise. J Electromyogr Kinsiol 21(2):249-54.

Summary: Fourteen subjects did 15 sets of 10 reps each of calf raises on different occasions. They wore either standard stockings (CON), compression stockings of 21-25 mmHg at the calf and 30 at the ankle (EC30), or compression stockings of 12-14 mmHg at the calf and 18 at the ankle (EC18). The EC30 stockings produced the lowest levels of fatigue.

Riman, D., L. Messonier, J. Castells, X. Devillard, P. Calmels. 2010. Effects of compression stockings during exercise and recovery on blood lactate kinetics. Eur J Appl Physiol 110(2):425-33.

Summary: Eight healthy, trained males did 2 maximum-effort tests on bikes with and without compression stockings. Post-exercise lactate removal was significantly faster with compression stockings.

Jakeman, J.R., C. Byrne, R.G. Eston. 2010. Lower limb compression garment improves recovery from exercise-induced muscle damage in young, active females. Eur J Appl Physiol 109(6):1137-44.

Summary: Seventeen females did 100 plyometric drop jumps from a high box to induce muscle soreness and damage. Eight of them wore compression stockings for 12 hours post-exercise. Nine did not wear compression stockings after the session. Recovery was measured using self-reported muscle soreness, creatine kinase levels, knee extensor strength and vertical jump height. Compression stockings improved all markers of recovery except for creatine kinase (a marker of muscle cell damage).

W.J., S.D. Flanagan, B.A. Comstock, et al. 2010. Effects of a whole body compression garment on markers of recovery after a heavy resistance workout in men and women. J Strength Cond Res 24(3):804-14.

Wearing a full-body compression garment for 24 hours after a challenging, heavy-resistance strength workout enhanced psychological, physiological and performance markers of recovery when compared with non-compressive garments. Summary: Eleven subjects completed two exercise sessions separated by seven days. The sessions consisted of 20-meter sprints and 10 bounds every minute. For one session they wore compression stockings. For the other they did not wear compression stockings. Performance was measured for the sprints and bounds. Before each session, immediately after, 2 hours after and 24 hours after the researchers measured muscle twitch properties, knee extension strength, knee flexion strength, blood lactate, body fluid pH, creatine kinase, aspartate transaminase, C-reactive protein, heart rate, ratings of perceived exertion and muscle soreness. There were no differences in performance or other measures except for muscle soreness which was less after using the compression stockings.

Higgins, T., G.A. Naughton, D. Burgess. 2009. Effects of wearing compression garments on physiological and performance measures in a simulated game-specific circuit for netball. J Sci Med Sport 12(1):223-6.

Summary: Competitive netball players wore either 1) traditional netball clothing, 2) compression garments or 3) placebo garments. They were tested for sprints, countermovement jumps, blood lactate, heart rate, velocity and distance covered during a game (using GPS technology). With compression garments there was greater distances covered and faster velocities although the enhancements were minimal.

W. S. Von Stengel, C. Kockritz, J. Mayhew, A. Wassermann, J. Zapf. 2009. Effect of compression stockings on running performance in men runners. J Strength Con Res 23(1):101-5.

Summary: Twenty-one moderately trained men ran a graded exercise test on a treadmill to a voluntary maximum output on two occasions separated by a week. One test was done with compression socks and the other with standard athletic socks. Running performance with the compression socks improved at anaerobic threshold 1.5% and at aerobic threshold 2.1%.

Scanlon, A.T., B.J. Dascombe, P.R. Reaburn, M. Osborne. 2008. The effects of wearing lower-body compression garments during endurance cycling. Int J Sports Physiol Perform 3(4):424-38.

Summary: Twelve well-trained (VO2 max 70.5 +/-4.9 mL/kg/min), young (20.5 +/- 3.6 years old), male cyclists did 2 graded exercise tests and 2 one-hour time trials wearing either full-length SportSkins Classic compression garment (LBCG) or standard underwear briefs (CON). In the graded exercise tests there was a 5% increase in anaerobic threshold power (245.9 +/- 55.7 to 259.8 +/- 44.6 watts) when wearing LBCG. There was no performance enhancement in the time trial (as measured by total work achieved in kilojoules).

References

Berry, MJ, Bailey, SP et al. 1990, ‘The effects of elastic tights on the post-exercise response’, Canadian Journal of Sports Science, 15, pp. 244–8.

Berry, MJ and McMurray, RG 1987, ‘Effects of graduated compression stockings on blood lactate following an exhaustive bout of exercise’, American Journal of Physical Medicine, 66(3), pp. 121–32.

Chatard, JC, Atlaoui, D. et al. 2004, ‘Elastic stockings, performance and leg pain recovery in 63-year-old sportsmen’, European Journal of Applied Physiology, 93(3), pp. 347–52.

Doan, BK, Kwon, YH et al. 2003, ‘Evaluation of a lower-body compression garment’, Journal of Sports Science, 21(8), pp. 601–10.

Gandhi, DB, Palmar, JR et al. 1984, ‘Clinical comparison of elastic supports for venous diseases of the lower limb’, Postgraduate Medical Journal, 60(703), pp. 349–52.

Kraemer, WJ, Bush, JA et al. 1996, ‘Influence of compression garments on vertical jump performance in NCAA division 1 volleyball players’, Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research, 10(3), pp. 108–83.

Kraemer, WJ, Bush, JA et al. 1998, ‘Influence of compression garment on repetitive power output production before and after different types of muscle fatigue’, Sports Medicine, Training and Rehabilitation, 8, pp. 163–84.

Kraemer, WJ, Bush, JA et al. 2001, ‘Influence of compression therapy on symptoms following soft tissue injury from maximal eccentric exercise’, The Journal of Orthopaedic and Sports Physical Therapy, 31(6), pp. 282–90.

Kraemer, WJ, Newton, RU et al. 1997, ‘Influence of a compressive on muscle function and soreness after maximal eccentric exercise’, abstract, 1997 NSCA Conference.

Lawrence, D and Kakkar, VV 1980, ‘Graduated, static, external compression of the lower limb: a physiological assessment’, The British Journal of Surgery, 67(2), pp. 119–21.

O’Donnell Jr, TF, Rosenthal, DA et al. 1979, ‘Effect of elastic compression on venous hemodynamics in postphlebitic limbs’, The Journal of the American Medical Association, 242(25), pp. 2766–8.

Author: Lee Wallace, Katie Slattery and Aaron Coutts, School of Leisure, Sport and Tourism, University of Technology, Sydney Issue: Volume 28 Number 4